Insulin resistance syndrome and hypoglycemic response

Insulin resistance syndrome and hypoglycemic response:

This concept was initially proposed by Reaven, which is a group of diseases or conditions related to metabolic disorders, including the following:

  1. Peripheral insulin resistance,the target tissues where insulin acts, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissues, resisting the insulin’s stimulation of glucose uptake.
  2. Hyperinsulinemia.
  3. Reduced glucose tolerance and diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes.
  4. Lipid metabolism abnormalities, including decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (which have antagonistic effects on atherosclerosis), and increased low-density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
  5. Essential hypertension.
Insulin resistance syndrome and hypoglycemic response
Insulin resistance syndrome

Insulin resistance is the central factor in this syndrome, which can lead to coronary heart disease (C), hypertension (H), adult-onset diabetes (A), obesity (O), and stroke (S), hence the name CHAOS for this group of diseases. Insulin resistance syndrome is a condition associated with modern lifestyle, and recent findings indicate that it also includes hyperuricemia, abnormal blood coagulation mechanisms, microalbuminuria, etc., which are related to central obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore, some scholars refer to it as the “new world syndrome.” Based on our current understanding of insulin resistance syndrome, actively preventing and treating its occurrence and development is of great significance for maintaining human health. The prevention and treatment methods will be discussed in other articles.

Patients with diabetes generally have high blood sugar. In the treatment of diabetes, excessive hypoglycemic drugs or other factors can induce hypoglycemic reactions, manifesting as accelerated heartbeat, excessive sweating, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, and even coma in severe cases. The symptoms of hypoglycemic reactions are closely related to the degree of hypoglycemia; the lower the blood sugar, the more severe the symptoms. However, some elderly patients and those with severe autonomic neuropathy may have reduced sensitivity to hypoglycemia, with subtle symptoms that can lead directly to coma, which should be taken seriously.

Diabetic hypoglycemic reactions are a type of etiology of hypoglycemia. The diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia have not yet been fully unified, and it is generally considered that plasma glucose concentrations below 2.8 mmol/L indicate hypoglycemia, and below 2.5 mmol/L are definitely hypoglycemic. Medical professionals have summarized the characteristics of hypoglycemia into three points, also known as Whipple’s triad: plasma glucose concentrations below 2.5 mmol/L, accompanied by hypoglycemic symptoms and signs, and symptoms relief after administration of glucose.

Diabetic hypoglycemic reactions, like hyperglycemia, have a significant impact on human organs, especially the brain. This is because during hypoglycemic reactions, blood sugar levels are extremely low, unable to ensure the energy supply of important organs such as the brain. Therefore, it is essential to detect and prevent hypoglycemic reactions early in the diabetes treatment process.

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