Global diabetes epidemic situation

Global diabetes epidemic:

Due to the rapid increase in diabetes prevalence worldwide, how to prevent and treat diabetes has become a global health care issue. The impact of diabetes on human health is becoming increasingly severe, ranking as the third largest disease after cardiovascular diseases and various cancers. However, the exact cause of diabetes is still unknown. To gain a deeper understanding of diabetes and develop useful preventive and therapeutic measures, it is of great significance to conduct epidemiological studies on diabetes.

Global diabetes epidemic situation
Global diabetes epidemic situation

In recent years, epidemiological studies have shown an increasing trend in diabetes incidence worldwide. Over the past few decades, the number of patients has been increasing in both developed countries such as Europe and the United States and developing countries including China. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation, more than 100 million people worldwide have diabetes in 1994. With the development of industrialization, the number of diabetes patients worldwide is expected to reach 160 million by 2000.

Type 1 Diabetes Global diabetes epidemic:

The epidemiological feature of type 1 diabetes is that the incidence rate in children in European and American countries is significantly higher than in Asia, including China, Japan, and North Korea. For example, the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in American children is 15.8/100,000, 2/100,000 in Japan, and less than 1/100,000 in Seoul, South Korea. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% to 15% of diabetes in white people, which is significantly higher than other races.

Many factors affect the incidence of type 1 diabetes, see the section on the etiology of diabetes for details.

Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) is organizing a global epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes involving 166 medical centers in 69 countries, including China. The results will further clarify the global prevalence of type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes Global diabetes epidemic:

Accounting for 80% to 90% of diabetes patients, the global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, mainly due to a significant increase in the number of type 2 diabetes patients. There are three main factors:

(I) There are significant racial differences in the incidence of diabetes.

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes varies among countries, with the rate in the United States being 8%, almost twice that of Australians; 4.21% in the former East Germany; and 3.2% in Japan. Within the same country, due to different races, cultures, eating habits, and economic conditions, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes also varies greatly. For example, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among white Americans is 6%-8%, while among the Indians in the southwestern United States (Pima), it is the highest in the world, reaching 30%-50%.

In addition to the above genetic differences among ethnic groups,Change of living environment after birth,such as high-sugar, high-fat intake, and reduced physical activity, also affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Some studies have shown that the increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is significantly related to the intake of meat, eggs, sugar, and calories. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes varies among the same ethnic group in different living environments and conditions. For example, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japan is 3.2%, while the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Japanese immigrants in Hawaii is significantly higher than that of mainland Japanese.

A statistical study in the United States found that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 15/100,000 in the 15-year-old group and increased to 613/100,000 in the 65-year-old group. With the extension of life expectancy worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes shows an upward trend.

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