Factors regulating blood glucose

Factors regulating blood glucose:

The changes of blood glucose in normal people are regulated by the nervous system and endocrine system. There are factors that increase blood glucose and factors that reduce blood glucose in the body. These two factors contradict and restrict each other, and are unified under the regulation of the nervous system, so that blood glucose is often maintained at a normal level.

Blood glucose change rule

the blood glucose of normal people has a certain rule. That is, the fasting blood glucose remains at a certain level, the general blood glucose concentration is 3.6~5.8mmol/l, and the blood glucose starts to rise after meals, reaching a peak around 1 hour, which is 7.8~8.9mmol/l, and the maximum is no more than 10mmol/l. Blood glucose concentration returned to fasting level 3 hours after meal. No matter what and how much you eat in each meal, the blood glucose changes in this way. That is to say, the blood glucose rises three times in three meals a day.

Factors regulating blood glucose
Factors regulating blood glucose

Factors regulating blood glucose:

Postprandial regulation

insulin secretion increases after a meal. On the one hand, it inhibits the decomposition of liver glycogen and gluconeogenesis, on the other hand, it promotes the conversion of blood glucose into liver glycogen and into muscle and adipose tissue. That is to say, it prevents the origin of blood glucose and accelerates the utilization of blood glucose. This helps prevent excessive increase of blood glucose after a meal. Insulin secretion returns to pre meal levels 2-3 hours after a meal.

Regulation during fasting, fasting and starvation.

On the one hand, the factors that raise blood glucose increase, such as the secretion of glucagon increases, which promotes hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, so that blood glucose increases. The increased secretion of growth hormone antagonizes insulin and inhibits the utilization of blood glucose by various tissues and cells in the human body.

On the other hand, the secretion of insulin decreases, so that the utilization of blood glucose in various organs (except the brain) is blocked, The use of blood glucose increases and decreases. The concentration of blood glucose is not too low, which can most effectively maintain the life activities of the human body. Because all the energy used by brain tissue comes from glucose, a certain concentration of blood glucose can make the brain get sufficient blood glucose supply.

Regulation of stress state:

In some emergency situations, such as trauma, cold and long-term starvation, in order to maintain a certain blood glucose level to ensure the glucose utilization of the brain, other factors also participate in the regulation of blood glucose. Adrenaline secretion increases, sympathetic nervous system excitability increases, so that liver glycogen is accelerated to decompose into glucose, so the liver glucose output increases, and adrenal glucocorticoid secretion increases, It promotes protein decomposition, increases raw materials for gluconeogenesis, and then increases gluconeogenesis, ensuring the source of blood glucose.

At the same time, the above two factors can also inhibit glucose utilization outside brain tissue. The above situation first ensures that brain tissue has sufficient glucose supply, and the blood glucose level is not too low.

Glucose metabolism in diabetic patients

Due to insufficient insulin effect, that is to say, the physiological function of the pancreatic islet cord cannot be fully exerted, so all links of the glucose metabolism process of diabetic patients are abnormal. First, when the blood glucose increases after a meal, the blood glucose path is not smooth, the insulin is insufficient, the synthesis of liver glycogen is inhibited, and the utilization of glucose by various organs and tissues is reduced, so that the blood glucose is significantly increased. Even after 3 hours after a meal, the blood glucose is still higher than normal, Moreover, the blood glucose level after a meal is affected by the type and amount of eating.

The more carbohydrate you eat, the more obvious the blood glucose rise. Secondly, the utilization of blood glucose decreases during fasting and starvation, while the decomposition and mobilization of protein and adipose tissue increases, gluconeogenesis increases, and the blood glucose is also significantly high and normal during fasting and starvation.

Under the influence of some stress factors, such as emotional tension, infection, etc., in addition to the insufficient effect of insulin itself, the factors that elevate blood glucose increase, such as the increased secretion of epinephrine and glucocorticoid, the enhanced sympathetic excitability, and the further aggravation of glucose metabolism disorder, followed by the induction of abnormal fat and protein metabolism, diabetic ketoacidosis coma and non ketotic hyperosmolar coma can occur, It is a serious acute metabolic complication and can be life-threatening

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