What are the common classes of anti-hypertensive drugs and their characteristics?

The common anti-hypertensive drugs include five types:

diuretics, β-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and calcium channel blockers.

Diuretics are mild-acting and cost-effective, with few adverse reactions at low doses. They are mainly used for mild to moderate hypertension, especially in elderly patients or those with heart failure. Patients with gout are contraindicated, and those with diabetes and hyperlipidemia should use them with caution.

What are the common classes of anti-hypertensive drugs and their characteristics?
What are the common classes of anti-hypertensive drugs and their characteristics?

β-receptor blockers are mainly used for mild to moderate hypertension, especially in middle-aged patients with a fast resting heart rate (>80 beats/minute) or those with angina pectoris. They are contraindicated in patients with heart block, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Patients with type 1 diabetes should use them with caution.

Calcium channel blockers can be used for various degrees of hypertension, especially in elderly patients or those with stable angina pectoris.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are mainly used for hypertension complicated by diabetes or patients with heart failure and proteinuria. They are contraindicated in pregnancy, renal artery stenosis, and renal failure patients.

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are applicable and contraindicated in the same patients as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. They are currently mainly used for patients who develop dry cough after treatment with the latter.

What kind of strategy should be adopted for anti-hypertensive treatment?

  1. Gradually lower blood pressure to the target level within a few weeks. For most chronic hypertension patients, it is beneficial to gradually reduce blood pressure and reach the target level within a few weeks, which can effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular lesions that may occur in the long term.
  2. Long-term regular anti-hypertensive treatment aims to achieve effective, stable, and long-term control of blood pressure.
  3. Use long-acting anti-hypertensive drugs. It is preferable to choose drugs with a duration of action lasting up to 24 hours, taken once daily. This can not only reduce blood pressure fluctuations but also lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and organ damage, as well as make it easier for patients to remember taking medication.
  4. Choose the method of medication. mainly based on blood pressure levels, presence of organ damage, and presence of risk factors, to determine whether to use single-drug therapy or combined therapy with multiple drugs. Generally speaking, the initial dose should be low.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top